I’ve been working to develop a rubric for the mathematical teaching practices outlined in Principles to Actions. The eight practices define what I want my teaching to look like, but at times I think they can be too general to be really practical for giving myself feedback or identifying areas for growth. In addition, I have a Professional Learning Community at my new school that is composed of non-math teachers, and the language in the eight practices is, I think, too vague to present to someone outside the discipline. In addition, I think that naming two or three specific practices and their elements as focus areas to frame an observation will help make those times more useful.

Anyway, here’s my first draft. I would love to get feedback, both on the substance of this rubric, and possible alternate approaches that could be more clear or more useful.

**Practice 1: Establish Mathematical Goals to Focus Learning**

- Students achieve clarity, by the end of the task or lesson, on its purpose and how it is connected to prior knowledge and future learning
- Introductory lessons effectively motivate learning through perplexity, placing a concept in context and provision an expert model to guide student thinking, either student-generated or teacher-generated
- Practice lessons provide opportunities to deepen understanding through deliberate practice toward clear learning goals
- Students have opportunities to transfer learning and make explicit connections between concepts

**Practice 2: Implement Tasks that Promote Reasoning and Problem Solving**

- Tasks are designed based on curricular expectations while also promoting non-routine thinking and new perspectives
- Tasks provide opportunities for spaced and interleaved practice of concepts
- Tasks have multiple entry points to allow both access to struggling students and challenge to high achievers

**Practice 3: Use and Connect Mathematical Representations**

- Connections between representations are made explicit, by either students or the teacher, throughout learning
- Students access concepts using multiple representations and perspectives to deepen understanding
- Technology, manipulatives, and interactive materials are used as an aid to support understanding

**Practice 4: Facilitate Meaningful Mathematical Discourse**

- Topics for discussion and discourse promote alternate approaches and disagreement that deepens understanding
- Students communicate in writing, in pairs, in small groups, and in front of the entire class
- Students speak both off-the-cuff and with preparation
- Students have opportunities for formal and informal feedback on communication about math

**Practice 5: Pose Purposeful Questions**

- Questions are scaffolded to provide access points at multiple levels
- Questions provide think time, both mental and in writing, for students
- Questions highlight key misconceptions or underlying concepts
- Questions build toward key understandings

**Practice 6: Build Procedural Fluency From Conceptual Understanding**

- Conceptual groundwork precedes practice for key skills
- Foundational skills for which fluency is necessary are clearly identified and students have the opportunity for spaced, deliberate practice
- Student practice is characterized by both spaced practice of key skills and reflection on where those skills fit into the larger picture

**Practice 7: Support Productive Struggle in Learning Mathematics**

- All students have opportunities to be unsuccessful and work to a better understanding
- Students are praised for effort and perseverance over intelligence or aptitude

**Practice 8: Elicit and Use Evidence of Student Thinking**

- Tasks elicit genuine evidence of student understanding through varied question types and a conceptual focus
- Teacher has the opportunity to examine evidence of student thinking objectively and without bias
- Teacher has the opportunity to use student thinking to inform the lesson progression
- Students have the opportunity for feedback that calibrates their work to standards of excellence
- Students have the opportunity for feedback that allows for further mathematical thinking

**References:
**Principles to Actions

Principles to Actions Executive Summary

Make It Stick

How People Learn